Happy 165th Birthday, California! On September 9, 1850, California was admitted to the Union as the 31st state.
Prior to the Stars and Stripes, nine flags flew over California: Spain, England, Russia, Argentina, Empire of Mexico, Republic of Mexico, Californians, The Fremont Flag, and California Republic.
Monterey was the capital of Alta California under Spain and Mexico. San Jose became the first capital in 1850 followed by Vallejo (twice), Benicia, and Sacramento (twice and current).
Ten Alta California governors were appointed by Spain and ten appointed by Mexico. Six American military governors oversaw California between July 1846 and December 1849 before Peter H. Burnett was elected the first American civil governor.